Principals as Human Capital Managers: A Literature Review

Darron L. Shell


This review focuses on the school system's evolution and the principal's role as an administrator. Principalship refers to the professional standards to which a school's leadership aims to meet the needs of staff, students, and parents. The roles include student management, enforcing curriculum, assisting teachers, and allocating material and financial resources to ensure high academic performance. The review identifies that most principals fulfill a minimum requirement of undergraduate and postgraduate education with vast experience as regular teachers, school counselors, or educational professionals.

The review identifies several academic preparation programs for state credentialing to become a school administrator. The study reveals that applicants for school leadership roles achieve higher learning goals such as master's or doctoral in education, psychology, and business administration. Most states require a minimum of three years of field experience with diverse communities. Scholars emphasize the need for continued learning programs for effective principalship and managing diverse school communities. Furthermore, each state has a local credentialing agency open to various professionals, thus creating varied leadership experiences for different schools.

The review seeks to establish the functions of a principal as a human capital manager. Scholars differentiate human resource management and human capital management by emphasizing the role of principals as business managers whose goal is to steer a school toward the best student, staff, and institutional output. The study uses human capital theory to maximize staff potential and achieve better institutional results. Therefore, the roles of a principal as a human capital manager include recruitment of qualified personnel, provision of professional growth opportunities for various staff, capacity building, and retention of qualified staff.

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International Journal of Contemporary Education

ISSN 2575-3177 (Print)   ISSN 2575-3185 (Online)

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