Board Diversity or Tokenism: A Case for Social Inclusion and an Efficiency Model

Bello Lawal, Mohammed Nuhu


This exploratory paper examines the concept of diversity as a dynamic of board effectiveness. The study argues that diversity hardly works without putting in place systems and programmes that promote social inclusion, and, as such, research on board diversity must account for this element in building empirical frameworks and model specifications. The study finds that a great majority of previous studies have ignored this variable of significant importance and, in some instances, conflated it with diversity itself. This represents a material flaw that needs to be addressed. This paper offers guidance on how to measure and account for social inclusion and integration in board diversity research. Finally, a portfolio efficiency frontier model is proposed as a mechanism for differentiating between corporations with efficient board diversity and those that are tokenism based.

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Applied Finance and Accounting (AFA)        

ISSN 2374-2410(Print)           ISSN 2374-2429(Online)

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