The Arrested Development of Golden Rice: the Scientific and Social Challenges of a Transgenic Biofortified Crop

Hyejin Lee, Sheldon Krimsky


Since its initiation to reduce the global public health crisis of vitamin A deficiency (VAD), the Golden Rice (GR) Project has met with both successes and challenges. After 16 years of its scientific breakthrough in 2000 with the GR prototype to produce β-carotene in rice grain, it has yet to be released. As the first biofortified crop developed with transgenic technologies designed to reduce the micronutrient deficiency, GR has met controversy and even academic scandal. This review updates the science and situates GR in its political, regulatory and economic contexts. In doing so, peer-reviewed journal articles on GR and VAD were studied, specific data were cited from well-recognized organizations, and both the science and regulatory issues were checked through personal communications. This review aims not only to update and provide evidence-based analysis of GR, but also to facilitate broader social conversations on transgenic crops.

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International Journal of Social Science Studies   ISSN 2324-8033 (Print)   ISSN 2324-8041 (Online)

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