Effects of Economic Growth, Trade Openness, and Urbanization on Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Ghana, 1960 to 2014

Forster Kwame Boateng


This paper examines the effects of per capita gross domestic product (GDP), trade openness, and urbanization on the total carbon dioxide emissions of Ghana using time-series annual data from 1960 to 2014. The 55-year period, from 1960 to 2014, covered economic transformation of Ghana from a low-income agrarian country to a lower-middle income country. The analysis used the autoregressive distributed lag method of co-integration. The results showed that per capita GDP, trade openness, and urbanization all significantly influenced both long-run and short-run levels of carbon dioxide emissions in Ghana. However, increased trade openness led to reduced total emissions, while rising per capita GDP and increased urbanization both increased total emissions albeit at different intensity levels.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.11114/aef.v7i2.4710


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Applied Economics and Finance    ISSN 2332-7294 (Print)   ISSN 2332-7308 (Online)

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